Login Enterprise Glossary

This glossary gives a comprehensive overview of essential concepts, terms, acronyms, and features of the Login Enterprise virtual appliance. It also includes industry-standard terms. Use it as a reference to learn about the Login Enterprise components and how they work together.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

A

Access Control

Measures and technologies that regulate who or what can access resources within a computing environment. It includes authentication (verifying identity), authorization (determining permissions), and auditing (monitoring access). Access control ensures that only authorized users, applications, or devices can access specific resources, enhancing security and protecting against unauthorized access.

Access Token

A credential that represents the authorization granted to a user or application to access specific resources. Access tokens are commonly used in OAuth 2.0 authentication flows, where they are issued by an authorization server and presented to a resource server to gain access to protected resources.

Account

A username/password pair used to trigger connections and identify connections once they start (usually an AD account).

Account Capacity

The full set of Test accounts available to a Test or a set of Tests.

Account Group

A subset of the full list of accounts available to the system that can be selected by name pattern matching or explicit selection.

Active Session

How many users are actively logged on and probably testing during a test scenario running.

Actual Number of Users

The total number of concurrent users the system (servers or cluster) is servicing.

AD Timeout

The time it takes for the AD domain controller to respond.

Appliance

The Linux-based Login Enterprise control center.

Application (App)

A configured step that can be associated with a test, consisting of a C# script that performs user-like actions in a Test session, and other configuration information. It is not limited to a single end-user application, it could start and interact with multiple programs; normally, though, it will test one program.

Application Script

The script portion of the Application (App) above.

Application Registration ID

App registration represents Login Enterprise as a registered application in Azure. Find the app registration ID on the App registration tab in the Azure portal.

Application Test

Application Tests are a specific type of Login Enterprise Test configuration, used for checking that your user software still operates, and operates within your existing operational parameters. Like Load Tests, these are one-time, on-demand tests that return data and events specific to this test. They are not scheduled tests that run periodically.

Application Secret

Application secret is a parameter defined in your enables Login Enterprise to authenticate against the app registration in Azure. Create it in the Provider definition to allow access to Azure billing information.

B

Baseline EUX Score

The Baseline EUX Score represents the best possible performance of the system and is the average EUX Score of the best 5 minutes of the test. This score indicates how the system performs when it is not under stress. Typically, the Baseline Score is captured at the beginning of the test before the system is fully loaded.

C

CapEx

CAPEX (Capital Expenditure) refers to money spent on acquiring, repairing, updating, or improving fixed company assets, such as on-premises IT infrastructure.

Connection Broker

A VDI software for directing an incoming connection for a user to a specific VDI resource.

Connector

A Login Enterprise software that is used to interact with a Connection Broker to launch a remote connection to a target desktop.

Container Status

Login Enterprise is comprised of a number of Docker Containers. The Container Status page allows you to see the status of each container in the system.

Continuous Test

A Continuous Test is a specific type of Login Enterprise test configuration. Also referred to as Continuous Monitoring, these are tests that run back to back, intended to keep a running monitor of your end-user experience, alerting you quickly to problems in your infrastructure without waiting for users to begin to complain.

D

Data Retention

The time that Login Enterprise will retain your testing results and log entries. You can set this as low as you need to preserve data for a time but not allow unlimited database expansion. You can choose separate data retention periods for Raw Measurement Data, Event Data, or EUX Raw Data.

Domain Controller

The LDAP or Active Directory server that the Login Enterprise can authenticate against.

E

Engine

The tool on target machines that retrieves and executes Application scripts, and reports results back to the appliance.

Environment

The environment enables test grouping. Use it to define cost and capacity for the Operations dashboard.

Event

A specific message with a time stamp that can be generated automatically by the appliance or from an Application script. Events can be viewed in the UI or retrieved from the API, showing significant events with timestamps in your test history. Events can optionally trigger e-mail alerts.

Event Logger

A tool for transporting Test events from the appliance into a Windows Event Log so they can be further processed by third-party tools like Splunk, Datadog, and Solar Winds.

Executable

A program that can be run in Windows.

EUX Metrics

The component scores from performance data that will be combined into the final EUX Score.

EUX Raw Data

EUX raw data exceeding the number of defined days will be deleted. To retain all EUX data, toggle off this feature. EUX data is collected during tests with EUX metrics enabled. The Login Enterprise EUX Score offers an objective means to assess how the overall experience evolves with an increasing number of users logging into a specific infrastructure or as changes are implemented that may affect the entire system.

EUX Score

End User Experience is a specific set of tools that produce measurements to closely approximate how a human would feel about using this machine. A score from 0 to 10.

External SQL Database

A Microsoft SQL Server database can be used to store Login Enterprise data instead of the internal database in the appliance. Choose this for production use. Set this during initial configuration, because you cannot migrate an existing configuration to the External SQL Database.

F

FQDN

Fully-qualified domain name: a hostname plus its domain, e.g. server.subdomain.domain.com.

G

GPO Processing

The time it takes for Windows to transmit and enforce any Group Policy Objects (GPOs) that apply to a Windows machine. This happens as part of the Windows logon phase and can affect the total amount of time it takes to log in.

Grace License

Login Enterprise comes built-in with an automatic license that is valid for 3 days from the time of installation. You must replace this with a real license to continue operating the software.

H

Host URL

Any host’s exposed URL. For example, the Login Enterprise virtual appliance URL, e.g. https://server.subdomain.domain.com/.

I

Integration Test

A software testing approach that assesses the interactions and interoperability among individual software components or modules within a system. It verifies that integrated components function together as intended and exchange data accurately. Integration tests aim to identify defects related to interface communication, data flow, and integration points between software modules, ensuring cohesive system operation. These tests can occur at different levels, such as component integration, subsystem integration, or end-to-end integration, depending on system complexity. Integration testing is typically conducted after unit testing and before system testing in the software development lifecycle to detect and resolve integration issues early, ensuring overall software quality and reliability.

Internal API

If you perform actions in the Login Enterprise web interface, the interactions are occurring within the internal API.

L

Launcher

A system that uses a Connector to initiate remote connections to target machines.

Launcher Group

A subset of the full list of Launchers available to the system that can be selected by name pattern matching or explicit selection.

Launcher Hostname

The Windows name reported by the Launcher.

Legacy Scripting Toolset

A set of tools that can be used with VSCode, to approximate the functionality now available with the Script Editor.

Legal Notice Tool

Legal notices at session login are designed to be manually clicked, and can’t be skipped. They exist in space after the Launcher starts a session and before the Login Processor and Engine take over and start controlling the system. The Legal Notice tool runs on the Launcher, watches for new sessions, and provides a helpful Enter keypress on each new remote session to hopefully clear the legal notice. Please note that this tool is not officially supported by Engineering. Customers have been known to write their own, too.

Load Test

Load Tests are a specific type of test available in Login Enterprise. They’re designed to simulate multiple active users all running in parallel, to determine the point at which an additional user would impact existing users noticeably. Login Enterprise will launch multiple sessions on Target machines in parallel, ramping up to a specific number of sessions, with those sessions running the defined Application scripts in a repeating loop for the duration of the Test. By default, it includes the EUX data collection and tries to calculate a VSI Max number for your test configuration.

Local AppData I/O Score

The results of a Test used as part of EUX testing which specifically exercises disk operations in C:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Local, to test that portion of a user’s profile.

Location

A geographical location and name that can be assigned to a Launcher for visualization purposes.

Login Processor

Used synonymously with a Logon Executable. A Login Enterprise software that will run on your target machines, and download and run the Engine to execute tests.

Logon Script

A logon component/mechanism that targets use to invoke the actual virtual user testing. It’s like a bootstrapper. Note the Logon script is the legacy way of doing it and the Logon Executable is the newer way.

M

Machine

A Host, probably a target/target host. It could also mean the Launcher host.

Machine Name

Host name

Maximum Number of Users

The total number of concurrent users the system (servers or cluster) can service, including the VSImax of the system.

Measurement

There’s a wide range of measurements that the Login Enterprise can take. WMI/Perfmon polling, launcher protocol latency, custom workload timers, logon timers, etc.

Mixed CPU I/O Score

The results of a Test used as part of EUX testing which simultaneously exercises CPU and disk operations by approximating the in-memory compression of a test file in the user’s profile.

MSI Installer

Windows Installer or Microsoft Installer. A technology developed by Microsoft for installing, maintaining, and removing software applications on the Windows operating system. It consists of installation metadata, files, and instructions required to install an application. The Windows Installer service, integrated into Windows OS, manages the installation process defined by the MSI package, including file copying, registry modifications, and system configuration changes. MSI installers support features like customization, silent installation, repair, uninstallation, and rollback to ensure reliable software deployment. Administrators and developers use tools like Microsoft's Orca to create, customize, and package MSI installer files for distribution.

My Documents I/O Score

The results of a test used as part of EUX testing which specifically exercises disk operations in the My Documents portion of a user’s profile.

O

OpEx

OPEX (Operational Expenditure) covers ongoing business expenses, including recurring costs for software or cloud services.

P

PerfMon

Performance Monitor. A native Windows tool enabling real-time monitoring and analysis of system performance. It offers a graphical interface to observe various performance counters like CPU utilization, memory usage, disk activity, and network traffic. Users can configure PerfMon to display specific counters, set up logging and alerts, and generate reports to diagnose performance issues and optimize system performance. It's widely used by system administrators, IT professionals, and developers to troubleshoot problems, tune configurations, and monitor the health of Windows-based computers and servers.

Performance Test

A software testing method focused on assessing the responsiveness, throughput, scalability, stability, and resource usage of a system or application under specific workload conditions. It measures various performance metrics like response times, transaction throughput, and resource consumption to evaluate the system's ability to meet performance requirements and user expectations. Performance tests simulate different user scenarios, load profiles, and stress conditions to identify bottlenecks and scalability limitations. Types of performance tests include load testing, stress testing, endurance testing, and scalability testing. Overall, performance testing ensures that software applications deliver acceptable performance levels, maintain responsiveness under peak loads, and sustain user satisfaction and productivity.

Port

Network Port. A port is a communication endpoint used by software to enable communication between computers or devices. It's identified by a number, such as 80 for HTTP (web) traffic or 443 for HTTPS (secure web) traffic. Ports allow different applications and services to operate simultaneously on a single device.

Profile Load

User Profile Load. When a user logs into a system, their personalized settings, preferences, and configurations are loaded from their user profile. This process is sometimes referred to as "profile loading." This can include things like desktop background, application settings, browser bookmarks, etc.

Provider

Desktop service providers enable Login Enterprise to establish a connection, facilitating the collection of real-time data for the operations dashboard.

R

Raw Data Export

Detailed numeric Test result data from a completed Test.

Raw Measurement Data

The maximum number of days for retaining raw measurement data, collected by the virtual user during Continuous Testing. The collected data includes logon, application, and latency metrics. The metrics are visualized in the Dashboard and Reporting Charts (Hourly-view only) pages.

Read-Only Group

The Active Directory group defined that contains users given Read Only access to the Login Enterprise web interface.

RDS Broker

Remote Desktop Services Broker. A key component in the Microsoft Remote Desktop Services (RDS) infrastructure. It's responsible for coordinating the distribution of Remote Desktop (RD) sessions across multiple Remote Desktop Session Host (RDSH) servers. Acting as a central management point, the RDS Broker handles session load balancing, reconnection, and persistence for users accessing Remote Desktop resources in distributed environments. By optimizing resource utilization and directing users to the most suitable RDSH server based on factors like session availability and user preferences, the RDS Broker enhances user experience. Moreover, it provides high availability and fault tolerance capabilities to ensure continuous access to Remote Desktop resources, even in case of server failures or network disruptions.

RDP Host

Remote Desktop Protocol Host server or simply a terminal server. A computer system within the Microsoft Remote Desktop Services (RDS) infrastructure that hosts Remote Desktop (RD) sessions and applications for remote users. It executes and manages user sessions, providing a remote desktop or application environment via the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). RDP Hosts support multiple user sessions simultaneously, enabling users to access applications, and files, and perform tasks remotely. They facilitate centralized desktop and application delivery, allowing organizations to consolidate resources and provide remote access to computing resources for users from different locations.

RDS Gateway

Remote Desktop Services Gateway. A Microsoft Remote Desktop Services (RDS) component that enables authorized remote users to securely access internal network resources from outside the corporate network or over the internet. It acts as a gateway server, providing secure connections using Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) over HTTPS. RDS Gateway allows organizations to enforce access policies, authenticate users via Active Directory, and encrypt communications to protect sensitive data and maintain network security. It supports network-level authentication (NLA), and SSL encryption, and integrates with Active Directory for user authentication and access control.

S

Script Editor

A tool for building our C# Application scripts and examining programs for what controls are accessible and how to interact with them.

Script Recorder

The Login Enterprise Script Recorder is a tool that captures and records the sequence of user interactions with a computer system or software application. It records user inputs, such as mouse clicks, keyboard actions, and other commands, creating a script that can be replayed to automate repetitive tasks or test software functionality. Starting from Login Enterprise 5.10, the Script Recorder v1 is integrated into the Script Editor. To learn more, see the Script Recorder.

Secret

Confidential information like passwords, keys, or tokens, vital for secure authentication, authorization, or encryption in software systems. Protecting secrets from unauthorized access is crucial, requiring secure storage, encryption, and access controls. Best practices include securely generating, storing, rotating, and revoking secrets to maintain system integrity. In Login Enterprise, secrets authenticate component requests, ensuring their validity and identity.

Session

A test user that is actively logged into a target and running test scenario-defined testing from Login Enterprise

Session Metric

A measurement or data point related to a user session within a software application, website, or system. A user session is a period of interaction between a user and the system, starting with the user's login or access and ending when the user logs out or becomes inactive for a certain period. Login Enterprise uses built-in Microsoft tech to gather some defined WMI and PerfMon performance counters. To learn more, see Session Metrics.

SLA Report

A Service Level Agreement report. A document summarizing a service provider's performance in meeting the terms of the SLA, a contract outlining expected service levels. It includes metrics like uptime, response time, and availability. In the context of Login Enterprise, a Continuous test scenario can generate an SLA report as a PDF based on configured parameters. This report serves to demonstrate key performance indicators (KPIs) or validate if required functionality and performance are met or exceeded in a production environment, crucial for stakeholders.

SSL/TLS

Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security. SSL and TLS are cryptographic protocols for secure communication over computer networks. SSL was developed by Netscape, succeeded by TLS, and maintained by the IETF. They encrypt data transmission between client and server, ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity. SSL/TLS uses cryptographic algorithms to establish secure connections, negotiate encryption parameters, authenticate parties, and verify data integrity. They secure protocols like HTTPS, SMTP, and FTPS, enabling secure web browsing, email, file transfer, and online transactions.

Steady State EUX Score

The Steady State period represents the time after all users have logged in (login storm) and the system starts to normalize. The Steady State EUX score is the average of the EUX scores captured 5 minutes after all sessions are logged in, until the end of the test.

T

Target

An individual end-user machine where a Test will run. Target could also mean the platform as a whole that is hosting the targets (in this case, also referred to as a Target host).

Tenant ID

Azure Tenant is an instance of Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). Find the tenant ID on the App registration tab in the Azure portal.

Test

In Login Enterprise, a Test is the complete configuration describing how a test should operate. It includes a collection of Application scripts that will perform a series of actions and take measurements as defined in those Application scripts; the Accounts; Launchers; Connector configuration; scheduling information; operational parameters like Session Metric selection, EUX enablement, and logging options.

Test Duration

A timespan indicating how long a Load test is set to run as a whole or during just the steady state segment of a Load test (after the test users have ramped up).

Total Login Time

The complete amount of time from when the Connector begins the login process for the user session to the point where the final user-session executable (usually Wndws Explorer) is up and running.

Trusted Certificate

A digital certificate issued by a reputable certification authority (CA) and acknowledged as valid by client software or operating systems. These certificates are issued by CAs that follow industry standards and verification practices, ensuring the security of certificate issuance. Client applications and OSs maintain a trust store containing public keys of trusted CAs, allowing certificates signed by these authorities to be deemed trustworthy. Trusted certificates are essential for secure communication, online transactions, and data exchange, ensuring authenticity and integrity in digital identities.

U

Unit Test

Automated tests that check individual parts (units) of software to ensure they work correctly in isolation, typically fast, focused, and deterministic.

Untrusted Certificate

A digital certificate not accepted as valid by client software due to reasons, such as expired validity, mismatched signatures, or unknown issuers. Client applications may warn users about potential security risks, like data interception if they choose to communicate using such certificates.

User

An account or an actual human user interacting with a target.

UWC

Universal Web Connector. For VDI systems where Login VSI doesn’t provide a Connector, or where the built-in Connector doesn’t quite work, you can build your own using an Engine-like scripting system for interacting with web-based connection broker interfaces.

V

VDI

Both an individual virtual Windows desktop and the entire infrastructure for managing and accessing those individual desktop machines.

Verbose Logging

Detailed logging mode in software apps that produces extensive log messages, including debug info and diagnostic data. It's useful for troubleshooting and debugging but can increase log file sizes and resource usage.

Virtual User

Sometimes also referred to as a robotic or synthetic test user.

VSI Max

The maximum number of concurrent active VDI sessions your hardware will support without compromising responsiveness.

W

Web Automation Driver

Software for automating web browser interactions, offering APIs to control behavior programmatically. It's used for tasks like testing, web scraping, and automating workflows. Examples include Selenium WebDriver and Microsoft WebDriver. Login Enterprise employs Selenium drivers.

Workload

Used synonymously with Application script. A Workload is what a virtual user uses to perform user-like interactions within the Windows targets.

WMI

Windows Management Instrumentation. A suite of system management tools within the Windows OS. It offers a standardized framework to access and manage system info, settings, and resources locally or remotely across a network. Developers and admins use WMI to automate tasks, monitor system performance, retrieve hardware/software info, and perform management operations through scripts or apps. WMI uses a hierarchical namespace structure and supports querying with WQL (WMI Query Language), similar to SQL.